Bus: Rio De Janeiro (novo Rio) to Sao Paulo (tiete)

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Bus ticket from Rio De Janeiro (novo Rio) to Sao Paulo (tiete)

Distance 429km
Time of travel 6 hours
Ticket price USD 25.43

Departure Bus Station(s) in Rio De Janeiro (novo Rio) Rio de Janeiro - Novo Rio
Arrival Bus Station(s) in Sao Paulo (tiete) São Paulo - Tietê
Bus company Expresso Sul, Itapemirim e 1001

Find Your Bus Ticket for Tomorrow Here

Departure Duration Destination Bus Company Class Price Per Person
00h05 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA Dd - Leito Cama USD 94.26
00h05 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA Dd - Semileito USD 37.11
00h05 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Cama USD 80.00
00h05 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Semilto Dd USD 37.14
00h10 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação PENHA Semi-Leito USD 30.90
00h10 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação PENHA Cama USD 74.91
00h10 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Semileito USD 32.67
00h10 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Cama USD 66.18
00h10 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Cama Individual USD 101.61
00h20 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA With Bed USD 42.83
00h35 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Cama USD 80.00
00h35 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Semilto Dd USD 37.14
01h25 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA Dd - Convencional USD 34.26
01h25 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA Dd - Leito USD 42.83
01h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação CATARINENSE Semilto Dd USD 32.85
01h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação CATARINENSE Cama USD 51.43
02h00 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Cama USD 80.00
02h00 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Semilto Dd USD 37.14
04h45 8h 20m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Cama USD 50.43
04h45 8h 20m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Semileito USD 32.63
04h45 8h 20m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Cama Individual USD 62.39
05h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação CATARINENSE Semilto Dd USD 32.85
05h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação CATARINENSE Cama USD 48.57
06h00 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA Dd - Leito Cama USD 51.40
06h00 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA Dd - Semileito USD 37.11
06h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Semilto Dd USD 37.14
06h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Cama USD 51.43
07h00 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação CATARINENSE Conv Dd USD 30.00
07h00 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação CATARINENSE Semilto Dd USD 32.85
07h30 6h 5m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Cama - Vai Direto USD 54.28
07h30 6h 5m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Semi Leito - Vai Direto USD 38.57
07h45 8h 25m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO ADAMANTINA Conventional USD 22.85
08h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação PENHA Semi-Leito USD 31.05
08h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação PENHA Cama USD 54.95
08h00 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA Dd - Leito Cama USD 51.40
08h00 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA Dd - Convencional USD 34.26
08h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Cama USD 48.57
08h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Conv Dd USD 34.28
09h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Cama USD 45.92
09h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Conventional USD 28.53
09h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Cama Individual USD 59.64
09h00 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Semileito - Aguiaflex USD 32.83
09h00 6h 20m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação CATARINENSE Conv Dd USD 30.00
09h00 6h 20m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação CATARINENSE Semilto Dd USD 32.85
09h30 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação PENHA Semi-Leito USD 31.10
09h30 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação PENHA Cama USD 57.95
10h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Conventional USD 28.53
10h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Cama USD 45.92
10h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Cama Individual USD 59.64
10h00 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA Dd - Convencional USD 34.26
10h00 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA Dd - Leito USD 39.97
10h00 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Semilto Dd USD 37.14
10h00 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Cama USD 51.43
10h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Cama USD 51.43
10h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Conv Dd USD 34.28
11h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação PENHA Semi-Leito USD 30.90
11h00 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação CATARINENSE Conv Dd USD 30.00
11h00 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação CATARINENSE Semilto Dd USD 32.85
11h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Cama USD 51.43
11h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Semilto Dd USD 37.14
12h00 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA Dd - Leito Cama USD 51.40
12h00 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA Dd - Convencional USD 34.26
12h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Cama USD 48.57
12h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Conv Dd USD 34.28
13h00 8h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO ADAMANTINA Conventional USD 22.77
13h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação PENHA Convencional Dd USD 21.81
13h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação PENHA Cama USD 53.62
13h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Conventional USD 28.53
13h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Cama USD 45.92
13h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Cama Individual USD 59.64
13h00 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Semileito - Aguiaflex USD 32.83
13h00 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação CATARINENSE Conv Dd USD 30.00
13h00 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação CATARINENSE Semilto Dd USD 32.85
13h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Semilto Dd USD 37.14
13h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Cama USD 51.43
13h45 5h 45m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO ADAMANTINA Leito Total - Conjugado USD 25.71
13h45 5h 45m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO ADAMANTINA Leito - Individual USD 28.57
13h45 5h 45m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO ADAMANTINA Conventional USD 22.85
14h00 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA Dd - Leito Cama USD 51.40
14h00 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA Dd - Semileito USD 37.11
14h00 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação CATARINENSE Semilto Dd USD 32.85
14h00 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação CATARINENSE Conv Dd USD 30.00
14h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Cama USD 48.57
14h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Exec Dd USD 34.28
15h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação PENHA Convencional Dd USD 28.24
15h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação PENHA Cama USD 53.62
15h30 6h 5m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Semi Leito - Vai Direto USD 38.57
15h30 6h 5m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Cama - Vai Direto USD 54.28
16h00 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA Dd - Leito Cama USD 51.40
16h00 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA Dd - Convencional USD 34.26
16h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Cama USD 51.43
16h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Conv Dd USD 34.28
17h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação PENHA Convencional Dd USD 29.81
17h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação PENHA Cama USD 47.34
17h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Conventional USD 28.53
17h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Cama Individual USD 59.64
17h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Cama USD 45.92
17h00 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação CATARINENSE Cama USD 42.85
17h00 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação CATARINENSE Semilto Dd USD 32.85
18h05 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Conv Dd USD 34.28
18h05 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Cama USD 71.43
19h50 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Cama USD 77.14
19h50 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Conv Dd USD 34.28
20h00 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA Dd - Leito Cama USD 68.54
20h00 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA Dd - Convencional USD 34.26
20h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Conv Dd USD 34.28
20h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Cama USD 71.43
21h00 7h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO ADAMANTINA Conventional USD 20.00
21h30 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Cama USD 71.43
21h30 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Conv Dd USD 34.28
21h55 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA Dd - Leito Cama USD 68.54
21h55 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA Dd - Semileito USD 37.11
22h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação PENHA Semi-Leito USD 31.05
22h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação PENHA Cama USD 76.67
22h00 6h 40m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação CATARINENSE Semilto Dd USD 32.85
22h00 6h 40m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação CATARINENSE Exec Dd USD 30.00
22h15 6h 34m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Cama USD 57.14
22h15 6h 34m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Exec Dd USD 34.28
22h30 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Cama Individual USD 92.53
22h30 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Conventional USD 28.53
22h30 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Cama USD 68.53
22h30 6h 45m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Semilto Dd USD 37.14
22h30 6h 45m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Cama USD 77.14
22h55 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA Dd - Leito Cama USD 68.55
22h55 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA Dd - Semileito USD 37.11
23h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação PENHA Conventional USD 28.28
23h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação PENHA Cama USD 83.05
23h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Conventional USD 28.53
23h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Cama USD 68.53
23h00 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Cama Individual USD 92.53
23h10 6h 1m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Exec Dd USD 34.28
23h10 6h 1m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Cama USD 77.14
23h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação PENHA Semi-Leito USD 32.67
23h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação PENHA Cama USD 76.81
23h30 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Conventional USD 28.53
23h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Semilto Dd USD 37.14
23h30 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO DO SUL Cama USD 77.14
23h40 6h 15m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação AGUIA BRANCA With Bed USD 42.83
23h40 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Cama USD 77.14
23h40 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Semilto Dd USD 37.14
23h45 7h 45m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Leito Individual USD 79.24
23h45 7h 45m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Conventional USD 31.91
23h45 7h 45m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM With Bed USD 63.96
23h50 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação CATARINENSE Exec Dd USD 30.00
23h50 6h 30m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação CATARINENSE Semilto Dd USD 35.71
23h59 5h 45m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO ADAMANTINA Conventional USD 22.85
23h59 5h 45m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO ADAMANTINA Leito Total - Conjugado USD 28.57
23h59 5h 45m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação EXPRESSO ADAMANTINA Leito - Individual USD 40.00
23h59 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação PENHA Leito Individual USD 40.40
23h59 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação PENHA With Bed USD 32.40
23h59 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Cama Individual USD 92.53
23h59 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Cama USD 68.53
23h59 6h Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação ITAPEMIRIM Conventional USD 28.53
23h59 5h 45m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Cama - Vai Direto USD 80.00
23h59 5h 45m Sao Paulo (tiete) (SP) Viação 1001 Semi Leito - Vai Direto USD 38.57

Traveling from Rio de Janeiro to São Paulo by bus is quite simple. Just follow these steps:

Booking the ticket on brazilbustravel.com:

 

  1. Use the search box to type the necessary details: to-from locations, departing date and ticket type (one-way or return). Hit the SEARCH BUS TICKETS button.

  2. Choose your ticket(s) from the search results. There are a lot of journey options so use the filters to adjust the time of departure or arrival or select your preferred bus company.  Please note there two bus stations in São Paulo that will appear in there. If you want to reach the international airport, choose São Paulo – Guarulhos. Otherwise choose São Paulo – Tietê to reach  the city centre.

  3. Class: The price of your ticket will depend on the class you choose. Here is some information on the seat types:
    Conventional (Port. Convencional) is a standard long distance bus seat that reclines.
    Executive (Executivo) and Golden (Semi-Leito) offer a seat that reclines more, with more legroom; there is always a restroom, air conditioning, a sound system, and there is more space between the seats.
    Bed (Leito) is a seat that reclines almost fully, like a bed, so that you can sleep during the trip. The seats have a leg rest, are extra wide and there is over a lot of space between the seats.
    Gtv 1.cls is a first class seat on a Gran Turismo Vehicle bus. Theywere designed to have seating similar to a long distance airplane. The first class of this bus is located on the lower deck.
    There is a leg rest, the seats are almost fully reclining, ample legroom and personal space and all personal comfort and gadgets you would expect on an airplane.
    If you choose to travel between the capitals on an overnight trip, the Bed or Gtv 1.cls is your best bet so that you can sleep comfortable. However, as the journey takes 6 hours, during the day the Conventional or Executive seating should be comfortable enough.

  4. Passenger Details: Once you select your seats you will be taken to the Passenger Details screen. Your passport is the best form of ID to use to fill out this section. RG is a Brazilian ID, RNE is a foreigner’s Brazilian ID, Passport is for all other foreigners and Other is for those without a passport. To avoid confusion, as a foreigner, it is best to use your passport. But, if you have another type of ID to use, it should work fine. You may choose more than one seat by repeating this process.

  5. Choose your payment method: you can pay for your tickets using a credit card – for this option select “regular checkout” or you can pay by PayPal and receive a 5% discount.

 

Preparing for the journey:

Once your ticket is purchased, print the receipt and take it with you to the bus station on the day of travel. This will help you at the ticket counter. If you show up without it, your ID will be enough to claim your ticket but if you don’t speak Portuguese the printout will speak for you.

Bear in mind Brazilian buses have polar air-conditioning, so even if it’s 40°C outside take a sweater or similar garment in your carry-on luggage. You will get a blanket in the overnight bed buses, but it may not be sufficient. Don’t expect a full meal served on board, but for the bed seats you will get some snacks and a drink, and there should be a stopover at a roadside café.

On the Rio Novo Terminal:

Bus Station:

General bus station information for Rio is listed below. Remember that it is good to give yourself about an hour to pick up your ticket and get to your departing bus platform. Google Maps is a good way to look up directions from where you are staying in Rio de Janeiro to the bus station.
Rio de Janeiro Station  (Novo Rio)
The Rio bus station address to put into Google Maps is Ave. Francisco Bicalho, 01, Santo Cristo, RJ Phone: (21) 3213-1800 If you take a taxi, just say Rodoviaria Tiete (Hodo-vee-are-ee-ah Hee-oh Day Jan-air-oh).
Novo Rio is a large terminal with all the necessary facilities. For more details go to the Rio de Janeiro - Novo Rio Bus Station page.

Pay attention to the bus company you opted for: 

when you arrive at your station you will need to pick up your ticket at that company’s ticket counter. The logos for the bus companies are what to look for above the ticket windows.

Expresso do Sul, 1001, Kaissara and Expresso Brasileiro are the bus companies that connect Rio to the Tiete station.

Útil is the company that connects to the Guarulhos station.

Show your Id and the attendant will give you your ticket. A printout of your Brazilbustravel.com ticket information will be helpful as well.

After you get your ticket:

go to where the buses depart. Look for the sign that has Embarque Plataforma written on it. Your platform number (Plataforma) is on your ticket.

Baggage:

If you have a large suitcase or other item, you will go around and wait in the line at the side of the bus before you board. There should be an attendant loading bags into the side of the bus. He will give you a ticket stub and load your bag for you. You will give this stub back to the attendant when you retrieve your luggage at the end of the trip. Once you board the bus, there is room above the seat to store any carry-on luggage.

Boarding:

You need two things to get on board the bus; your ID and a little paper slip that comes with your ticket. You will actually receive two little paper slips to fill out when you are handed your ticket. One of them is for insurance purposes. It can be filled out during the trip and it stays with you. It will have the word Seguro on it, which means Insurance. The other paper is to be filled out before boarding and handed to the driver as you present your ID.


Your Seat:

The word for seat in Portuguese is Poltrona. You will want to match the number in that Poltrona box of your ticket to the seat numbers on the bus. If you have trouble finding your seat, just ask around and someone will help you. Brazilians are usually very helpful and kind.

Rest Stops:

Along the way, your bus may stop at roadside cafes or little shopping areas. Feel free to leave the bus and walk around to stretch your legs. Just don’t stray too far and tell the driver if you go to buy something so that they know to wait for you.

In Sao Paulo

Arrival:

When you arrive at your destination, simply gather your belongings and proceed to the side of the bus to reclaim you baggage, if you had it stored away. Hand the attendant your baggage ticket stub and reclaim you items.

Arrival bus terminals:


Guarulhos Bus Station
The Guarulhos bus station address is Alameda dos Lírios, SP, Brazil. Phone: (11) 2403-5861. The international airport of São Paulo – Cumbica lies nearby. A muncipal bus will take you there in about 20 minutes.
 

Tiete bus terminal
Address: Avenida Cruzeiro do Sul, 1800, Santana, Sao Paulo, SP. Phone (11) 3866-1100. Tietê is São Paulo´s biggest terminal with a shopping centre located on its side. It is also connected to the city´s metro system. Whatever your means of transport, an unforgettable stay in Brasil´s biggest metropole awaits you. Take some time to explore São Paulo´s buzzing nightlife, cultural scene and monuments of 460+ years of its history.